Adonai Commands Tziyon to Wake Up ~ Yesha’yahu 52:1-12

In my last post, we completed learning about The Cup of Adonai’s Wrath in Yesha’yahu 51:17-23. In this post, we learn about Adonai Commands Tziyon to Wake Up in Yesha’yahu 52:1-12.

1 Awake! Awake, Tziyon! Clothe yourself with your strength! Dress in your splendid garments, Yerushalayim, the holy city! For the uncircumcised and the unclean will enter you no more.

For the third time in this section, the call to awake occurs (see Yesha’yahu 51:9,17). This time it is addressed toTziyon, again personified as a woman. The description is of a renewed, refreshed, and restored Yerushalayim, no longer contaminated by the uncircumcised and the unclean.

2 Shake off the dust! Arise! Be enthroned, Yerushalayim! Loosen the chains on your neck, captive daughter of Tziyon!

In an obvious allusion to the exile, Tziyon is pictured as freed from bondage. She will rise from the dust to take her seat, perhaps implying a transition from dusty captive to the dignified queen.

If you go to Yerushalayim today, you can sense the riches of the area, but you can also see the sin and corruption. It won’t always be that way, however, for when Yeshua comes back to rule and reign in Yerushalayim, it will be a holy city, indeed.

3 For thus says Adonai: “You were sold for nothing, and you will be redeemed without money.”

Adonai was so anxious to get rid of sinful Tziyon that He sold her for nothing. He sold her for nothing; He can now redeem her for nothing.

4 For thus says Adonai Elohim: “Long ago My people went down to Egypt to live there as aliens, and Ashur oppressed them for no reason.

The prophecy speaks from a prophetic perspective as if Yesha’yahu were living at the time of the Bavlim captivity. From that time in the future, he looks back on two previous traumatic periods in Israeli history – the Exodus from Egypt in the second millennium BCE and the Ashurim invasion of the northern kingdom during Yesha’yahu’s lifetime (722 BCE). The Bavlim captivity dates to 586-539 BCE.

5 So now, what should I do here,” asks Adonai, “since My people were carried off for nothing? Their oppressors are howling,” says Adonai, “and My name is always being insulted, daily. 6 Therefore My people will know My name; therefore, on that day they will know that I, the one speaking – here I Am!”

Adonai’s people come to know Him through this process of punishment and restoration.

In Bavel, Adonai’s people howled. In Egypt, they cried out (see Exodus 2:23). Adonai heard it all. Just as He sent Moshe to deliver His people from Egypt, He’ll send Koresh to liberate them from Bavel. However, even with their history of miraculous deliverance, polls show that less than 10% of people in Isra’el today believe in Adonai. On that day, however, when Yeshua comes back, they will know Adonai’s true name and His character.

7 How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news, proclaiming shalom, bringing good news of good things, announcing salvation and saying to Tziyon, “Your God is King!”

As the song title proclaims: OUR GOD REIGNS! In the ancient world, the news was carried by a herald. In this verse, the herald announces the end of hostilities and the fact that Adonai reigns as King over His people. A variation of this verse occurs in Nahum 1:15.

8 Listen! Your watchmen are raising their voices, shouting for joy together, for they will see, before their own eyes, Adonai returning to Tziyon.

Watchmen were posted on city walls to keep an eye out for attack, or in this case to be the first to witness the return of Adonai to His Holy City, Yerushalayim.

9 Break out into joy! Sing together; you ruins of Yerushalayim! For Adonai has comforted His people, He has redeemed Yerushalayim! 10 Adonai has bared His holy arm in the sight of every nation, and all the ends of the earth will see the salvation of our God.

The salvation referred to here is the conspicuous restoration of Yerushalayim after it had been reduced to ruins by the Bavlim.

11 Leave! Leave! Get out of there! Don’t touch anything, unclean! Get out from inside it, and be clean, you who carry Adonai’s temple equipment.

Adonai’s temple equipment was transported to Bavel during the conquests of Yerushalayim. They were returned to Yerushalayim during the Persian period.

The priests (who are required to carry the vessels of Adonai) are now encouraged to leave, presumably from Bavlim captivity.

12 You need not leave in haste; you do not have to flee; for Adonai will go ahead of you, and the God of Isra’el will also be behind you. ~ Isaiah 52:1-12 (CJB)

When Adonai delivers His people, they never have to run for their lives. They only must move at His pace because He goes before and behind.

In my next post, we will begin to examine one of my favorite – if not my most favorite – passages in the Tanakh: The Suffering Servant in Yesha’yahu 52:13-53:12. I’m pretty sure this will be a multi-part series.

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Everlasting Salvation for Tziyon ~ Part 2 ~Yesha’yahu 51:9-16

In my last post, we learned about Everlasting Salvation for Tziyon ~ Part 1 in Yesha’yahu 51:1-8. In this post, we continue in Everlasting Salvation for Tziyon ~ Part 2 in Yesha’yahu 51:9-16.

9 Awake! Awake! Arm of Adonai, clothe yourself with strength! Awake, as in days of old, as in ancient generations! Wasn’t it you who hacked Rahav to pieces, you who pierced the sea monster? 10 Wasn’t it you who dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep; you who made the sea bottom a road for the redeemed to cross?

Although not mentioned in any known text outside the Bible, Rahav is comparable to the chaos monster Leviathan, which also takes the form of a twisting serpent (Job 26:12-13). Rahav is also used synonymously for Egypt. Rahav is paired here with Bavel in terms of importance.

Adonai is encouraged to wake up from slumber and go about His redemptive work. Past victories are then recounted in the form of the defeat of Rahav. The sea and its monsters represent the forces of chaos that are against Adonai and His creation.

11 Those ransomed by Adonai will return and come with singing to Tziyon; on their heads will be everlasting joy. They will acquire gladness and joy, while sorrow and sighing will flee.

In verse 10, Yesha’yahu wondered why Adonai wasn’t working. Here, in verse 11, he is sure that Adonai will work. What caused him to change his mind? I suggest it was in the very act of pouring out his heart to Adonai in prayer that the answer to his question, the solution to his frustration was found. You dried up the sea, he said in verse 10.

One of the most significant advantages of prayer is that, as we talk to Adonai, we begin to get insights and understanding that will see us through another day – maybe just one more day, but that is all we need. It is an excellent thing to pour out your heart to Adonai because, as was the case with Yesha’yahu, so often the answer is found in the very questions and frustrations we share.

12 “I, yes I, am the one who comforts you! Why are you afraid of a man, who must die; of a human being, who will wither like grass?

It is utter folly to fear humans who die rather than Adonai who endures forever.

13 You have forgotten Adonai, your maker, who stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth. Instead, you are in constant fear all day because of the oppressor’s rage, as he prepares to destroy! But where is the oppressor’s rage?

Adonai constructed the heavens and the earth like a person would build a tent (stretched out) or a house (laid the foundations).

14 The captive will soon be set free; he will not die and go down to Sh’ol; on the contrary, his food supply will be secure.

While most of those who had been deported to Bavel would not have been imprisoned, there would have been some political prisoners. Pits were used as prisons in most of the ancient Near East. Those in debt, criminals awaiting trial and political prisoners were held in confinement of one sort or another – the Israeli thought of the grave and the underworld as a large pit.

15 For I am Adonai your God, who stirs up the sea, who makes its waves roar – Adonai-Tzva’ot is my name.

Adonai is in charge of the sea. This shows metaphorically His ability to control the forces of evil.

16 I have put My words in your mouth and covered you with the shadow of My hand, in order to plant the skies [anew], lay the foundations of the earth [anew] and say to Tziyon, ‘You are my people.’” ~ Isaiah 51:1-16 (CJB)

Through Yesha’yahu, Adonai asks His people why they fear man and forget Him. Yeshua would speak to this same issue. My friends, I tell you: don’t fear those who kill the body but then have nothing more they can do. I will show you whom to fear: fear him who after killing you has authority to throw you into Gei-Hinnom! Yes, I tell you, this is the one to fear! ~ Luke 12:4-5 (CJB)

How foolish we are to fear what others think of us or will do to us when Adonai holds life and eternity in His hand.

In my next post, we learn about The Cup of the Lord’s Wrath in Yesha’yahu 51:17-23.

Click here for the PDF version.

The Servant of the Lord ~ Yesha’yahu 49:1-7

In my last post, we examined Isra’el Freed in Yesha’yahu 48:12-22. In this post, we learn about The Servant of the Lord in Yesha’yahu 49:1-7.

Chapter 49 is a Messianic prophecy. It portrays the Prince of Peace, Yeshua HaMashiach.

1Coastlands, listen to Me; listen, you peoples far away: Adonai called Me from the womb; before I was born, He had spoken My name.

Coastlands is the same word translated islands in Yesha’yahu 41:1. It refers to the distant places of the earth. The Servant (see 49:3 below) spoke here and addressed all the peoples of the earth. He began by recounting His calling that started even before He was born.

In Psalm 22:9, another Messianic prophecy, we read that Yeshua had confidence in the Father even as an infant. Here, Yesha’yahu reiterates that, even as an infant, Yeshua knew the Father called him.

2 He has made My mouth like a sharp sword while hiding Me in the shadow of His hand; He has made Me like a sharpened arrow while concealing Me in His quiver.

The sword imagery is also used for the prophet’s word and Adonai’s Word in the Brit Hadashah. Since the sword was an offensive weapon, the implication is that the word is in some sense aggressive. One of the Hebrew words for the mouth (peh) also signified the term edge, as in “edge of the sword.” Thus, there may be a play on words in this verse.

The Servant was made to be a weapon in the arsenal of Adonai; the warrior to wage war against the chaos of the world. Indeed, His spoken Word was, like His written Word. See, the Word of Adonai is alive! It is at work and is sharper than any double-edged sword – it cuts right through to where soul meets spirit and joints meet marrow, and it is quick to judge the inner reflections and attitudes of the heart.” ~ Hebrews 4:12 (CJB)

3 He said to Me, “You are My servant, Isra’el, through whom I will show my glory.”

The Servant is identified as Isra’el. However, the Brit Hadasah authors recognized a second and more profound identification of the Servant as they associated these texts with Yeshua (see Matthew 8:17; 12:17-21; John 12:38; Acts 8:30-35).

4 But I said, “I have toiled in vain, spent My strength for nothing, futility.” Yet My cause is with Adonai; My reward is with My God.

Did Yeshua think He labored in vain? Humanly, He would have had a reason. He was betrayed by one of His disciples. And there was only one at the Cross. Indeed, our Lord must have struggled with the whispers of HaSatan, saying, “You failed. The masses have rejected You and even Your disciples have forsaken You.” [1]

5 So now Adonai says – I formed You in the womb to be His servant, to bring Ya‘akov back to Him, to have Isra’el gathered to Him so that I will be honored in the sight of Adonai, My God having become My strength –

In verse 3, the Servant identified himself as Isra’el; here, the Servant speaks as if He is the agent of Isra’el’s restoration. This seeming inconsistency is resolved once it is realized that it is the remnant, and ultimately the remnant of one – Yeshua – who functions in this way.

6 He has said, “It is not enough that you are merely My servant to raise up the tribes of Ya‘akov and restore the offspring of Isra’el. I will also make You a light to the nations, so My salvation can spread to the ends of the earth.”

As a nation, Isra’el’s original mission was to be a light to the rest of the world. But she turned inward. Not wanting to be polluted by the heathen, she lost compassion and vision for them. The nation of Isra’el failed. But the true Isra’el -Yeshua HaMashiach – never lost sight of His calling. He lived His life as the Light of the entire world and died to save all humanity.

7 Here is what Adonai, the Redeemer of Isra’el, His Holy One, says to the One despised, whom the nations detest, to the servant of tyrants: “When kings see You, they will stand up; princes too will prostrate themselves, because of Adonai, who is faithful, the Holy One of Isra’el, who has chosen You.” ~ Isaiah 49:1-7 (CJB)

Although Yeshua was despised and rejected in His First Coming, when He comes again, every knee will bow – in heaven, on earth, and under the earth – and every tongue will acknowledge that Yeshua the Messiah is Adonai – to the glory of God the Father. ~ Philippians 2:10-11 (CJB)

In my next post, we learn about The Restoration of Isra’el in Yesha’yahu 49:8-26.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Jon Courson’s Application Commentary Old Testament Volume 2.

Stubborn Isra’el ~ Yesha’yahu 48:1-11

In my last post, we examined The Fall of Bavel in Yesha’yahu 47:1-15. In this post, we explore Stubborn Isra’el in Yesha’yahu 48:1-11.

Whereas chapter 47 dealt with Adonai’s judgment against Bavel, chapter 48 deals with Adonai’s grace toward Isra’el.

1 Listen to this, house of Ya‘akov, called by the name of Isra’el, who have come from the spring of Y’hudah, who swear by the name of Adonai and invoke the God of Isra’el! – it is not sincerely or justifiably

Yesha’yahu addressed those connected to Adonai by their genealogical descent from the patriarchs. Avraham was the father of Isra’el, the first Jew. He had a son named Yitz’chak (Isaac 0, who had a son named Ya‘akov (Jacob). Ya‘akov had twelve sons who became the fathers of the twelve tribes of Isra’el. Ya‘akov’s name, which means heel snatcher or supplanter, was appropriate because he was one who lived by his wits – conning and tricking people. But one night, seeing no way out of his circumstances, he wrestled all night with the angel of Adonai, saying, I won’t let you go unless you bless me. Genesis ~ 32:26 (CJB)

In the morning, the man said, From now on, you will no longer be called Ya‘akov, but Isra’el; because you have shown your strength to both God and men and have prevailed. ~ Genesis 32:28 (CJB)

2 that they call themselves people of the holy city or rely on the God of Isra’el – Adonai-Tzva’ot is His name: 3 I announced things that happened at the beginning, long ago; they issued from My mouth, I proclaimed them. Then suddenly, I acted, and they occurred.

The past events refer to the judgment of Adonai on His people. He announced what would happen to sinful Y’huda through Yesha’yahu, Yermiyahu, Yechzk’el (Ezekiel), and other prophets. He proclaimed what He would do and then acted on His words.

4 Because I knew that you were stubborn, your neck an iron sinew, your forehead bronze,

Nothing can get through a bronze forehead. An iron neck is stiff and cannot turn around. This imagery shows the refusal of Adonai’s people to hear Him or to repent.

5 I announced it to you long ago; before it occurred, I proclaimed it to you; so that you could not say, ‘My idol did it; my carved image, my statue, gave the order for it.’ 6 You have heard and seen all this, so why won’t you admit it? Now I am announcing new things to you, secret things you have not known,

Up to this point, Adonai has been announcing judgment, but soon He will announce new things – a message of grace after the judgment. Why had Adonai kept the news of eventual restoration hidden? The new items include Adonai’s use of Koresh to deliver His people that we will examine in the next post.

7 created now, not long ago; before today, you did not hear them: so you can’t say, ‘I already know about them.’ 8 No, you haven’t heard, and you haven’t known; these things have not reached your ears before. For I knew how treacherous you were – you were called a rebel from the womb.

Adonai’s people had been so seduced by idolatry that Adonai said, “I’m speaking prophetically so that when events unfold, you won’t think they happened according to your idols’ predictions.”

9 Yet for the sake of My own reputation, I am deferring My anger; for the sake of My praise, I am patient with you, so as not to cut you off.

Adonai will not completely destroy His people. A remnant will survive the judgment.

10 “Look, I have refined you, but not [as severely] as silver; [rather] I have tested you in the furnace of affliction.

Silver in the ancient world was refined by a process in which it was melted to rid it of base components. Silversmiths, as well as goldsmiths, used blowpipes to ventilate their furnaces and cast their products with the aid of soapstone or clay molds. The image of refining is often used in the Bible to refer to removing sin from a person or a community, in this case, through affliction.

11 For my sake, I will do it, for My own sake. I will not let [My reputation] be tarnished; I will not yield My glory to anyone else. ~ Isaiah 48:1-11 (CJB)

Sometimes we wonder why we face one affliction after another. Could it be it’s because we’re not learning our lesson? Could it be that we’re so stubborn that Adonai has to take us through the fire of affliction continually? Has He been speaking to you about some issue? Is there something He has told you need to be changed but about which you persistently say, “Maybe later, Lord”? We all go through fiery trials, and many are mandated. But, as we watch the people of Isra’el, we see that other tests are the result of our stubbornness concerning lessons Adonai wants to teach.

In my next post, we examine Isra’el Freed in Yesha’yahu 48:12-22.

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Gods of Bavel ~ Yesha’yahu 46:1-13

In my last post, we explored Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 3 in Yesha’yahu 45:14-25. In this post, we learn of the Gods of Bavel in Yesha’yahu 46:1-13.

A contrast is drawn in this chapter between the idols that had to be carried and Adonai who carried the burdens of His people.

1 Bel bows down, N’vo stoops low; their idols are borne by animals, beasts of burden. The loads you yourselves were carrying are now burdening tired animals.

Bel was not a proper name in Bavel but was the Akkadian equivalent of Ba’al (lord). N’vo was the god of Borsippa, a city near Bavel. He was the god of wisdom and the patron deity of scribes and the son of Marduk. These gods, or more precisely, the idols that represented them, had to be carried on carts to move from one place to another. They were a heavy burden for the animals that carried them.

2 They stoop and bow down together; they cannot save the burden, but themselves go into captivity.

When one ancient Near Eastern power defeated another, they would carry off the idols of the conquered nation.

3 “Listen to me, house of Ya‘akov, all who remain of the house of Isra’el: I have borne you from birth, carried you since the womb. 4 Till your old age, I will be the same – I will carry you until your hair is white. I have made you, and I will bear you; yes, I will carry and save you.

The remnant were those Israeli who would survive the coming judgment. Adonai had carried or sustained His people from their birth. Rather than using beasts of burden to carry His people, Adonai carries them Himself all the days of their lives. That’s our promise as well.

5 To whom will you liken Me and equate me? With whom will you compare me, as if we were similar?”

Throughout history, people have tried to liken Adonai to various beings. The Greeks said, “If I were Adonai, I’d live on Mount Olympus, be all-powerful, and seduce pretty maidens.” So that’s what their gods did all day long: throw thunderbolts and chase women. In other cultures, people said, “If I were Adonai, I’d soar through the sky,” so they made their idols like eagles. People make gods out of what they think it would be fun to be. But the problem is, those gods become burdens. If your god is a pleasure, you will be burdened with lust. If your god is money, you’ll be in bondage to greed. If your god is your intellect, you’ll be weighed down by pride.

6 They squander the gold from their bags and weigh silver on a scale; they hire a goldsmith to make a god, before which they fall down and worship! 7 It is borne on shoulders and carried, then set in its place; and there it stands. From its place it does not move. If one cries to it, it cannot answer or save anyone from his troubles.

The images of deities in Mesopotamia were fed, dressed, and even washed daily. Food sacrifices were brought to the god daily (and no doubt eaten by the temple technicians). Other attendants were required to dress and undress the statue, and still, others were employed to wash the statue and transport it in times of celebration. [1]

Idols are worthless in the day of trial and tragedy. Not so the true and living Adonai.
8 Remember this, and stand firm. Keep it in mind, you rebels. 9 “Remember things that happened at the beginning, long ago — that I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me.

To remember means to draw strength by contemplating Adonai’s past acts of power. Throughout Scripture, Adonai calls Believers to remember the work He has already done on their behalf (see Deuteronomy 5:15, 1 Chronicles 16:11-2, and 2 Timothy 2:8). Seeing Adonai’s hand in the past encourages us to seek His face in the present.

10 At the beginning I announce the end, proclaim in advance things not yet done, and I say that My plan will hold, I will do everything I please to do.

The gods of the ancient Near East were not capable of controlling the destiny of the world without help. In Mesopotamia, there existed the “tablets of destiny,” texts which contained the futures of all things (including the gods) in the universe. Whoever controlled these tablets controlled fate. Occasionally these tablets came into the “wrong hands,” and chaos ensued. Some gods, including Enki, wore sorcerer’s hats, showing that they could control and predict the future, but only by way of spells and incantations. Conversely, Adonai managed all things without resort to superficial means of tablets or spells. [2]

11 I call a bird of prey from the east, the man I intended, from a distant country. I have spoken and will bring it about; I have made a plan, and I will fulfill it.

Koresh, the King of Persia, was the bird of prey. The Persian ensign was an eagle.

 12 Listen to Me, you stubborn people, so far from righteousness: 13 I am bringing my justice nearer, it is not far away; My salvation will not be delayed, I will place My salvation in Tziyon for Isra’el My glory. ~ Isaiah 46:1-13 (CJB)

My salvation will not be delayed. He said the same thing concerning the vision He gave to Habakkuk, another of His prophets. For the vision is meant for its appointed time; it speaks of the end, and it does not lie. It may take a while, but wait for it; it will surely come; it will not delay. Habakkuk 2:3 (CJB)

Who or what do you put your trust in? Adonai or your own created idol?

The Lord’s timing is perfect. As seen in the next chapter, His delivery of His people was nearer than they could have imagined.

In my next post, we examine The Fall of Bavel in Yesha’yahu 47:1-15.

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[1] The IVP Bible Background Commentary – Old Testament.

[2] Ibid.

Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 3 ~ Yesha’yahu 45:14-25

In my last post, we explored Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 2 in Yesha’yahu 454:1-13. In this post, we explore Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 3 in Yesha’yahu 45:14-25.

14 Here is what Adonai says: “The earnings of Egypt, the commerce of Ethiopia, and men of stature from S’va will come over to you and become yours; they will come in chains and follow you. They will prostrate themselves before you; they will pray to you: ‘Surely God is with you; there is no other, other gods are nothing.’”

A significant canal was built in the Red Sea (I couldn’t resist) by the Persians during the reign of Darius I that linked the Nile cultures of Egypt and Ethiopia with Arabia (S’va). This facilitated the flow of shipping between the two continents. This verse anticipates a time when these foreign nations will recognize that Adonai is the one true God.

15 Truly, you are a God who hides Himself, God of Isra’el, Savior! 16 The idol-makers will be ashamed, disgraced, all of them; they will go dishonored together.

Shame and disgrace comes on those who trust in idols because their confidence is misplaced.

17 But Isra’el, saved by Adonai with an everlasting salvation, you will never, ever, be ashamed or disgraced.

Adonai, who raised up Cyrus as a deliverer for Isra’el, now reiterates His promise to her that she would be saved. As Sha’ul would make clear in Romans 11, Adonai is not through with Isra’el. She has a key role to play in the ages to come.

18 For thus says Adonai, who created the heavens, God, who shaped and made the earth, who established and created it not to be chaos, but formed it to be lived in: “I am Adonai; there is no other.

As we say earlier, created here in Hebrew is bara. While some of us can create things out of raw material, only Adonai can create something out of nothing.

19 I did not speak in secret, in a land of darkness. I did not say to the descendants of Ya‘akov, ‘It is in vain that you will seek Me.’ I, Adonai, speak rightly; I say what is true.

While Adonai hid Himself in the sense that He is far above creation (v. 15), He pursues a relationship and makes Himself known to His creatures. Keep asking, and it will be given to you; keep seeking, and you will find; keep knocking, and the door will be opened to you. ~ Matthew 7:7 (CJB)

Anyone who believes who asks, seeks, or knocks will indeed get the very best. It might not be what you think is best, but it is what your Father knows to be best. If I don’t ask, I’ll never know if I really did get the best. If I do ask, however, I will receive Adonai’s best. That is why it’s never vain to seek Adonai.

20 Assemble, come and gather together, you refugees from the nations! Those carrying their wooden idols are ignorant, they pray to a god that cannot save.21 Let them stand and present their case! Indeed, let them take counsel together. Who foretold this long ago, announced it in times gone by? Wasn’t it I, Adonai? There is no other God besides Me, a just God and a Savior; there is none besides me.

The challenge to speak up and present your case indicates that this passage has a legal background. The issue involves the gods’ ability to reveal the future. And as we know, only Adonai can reveal the future through His prophets and written Word.

22 Look to Me, and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God; there is no other.23 In the name of Myself I have sworn, from My mouth has rightly gone out, a word that will not return – that to Me every knee will bow and every tongue will swear 24 about Me that only in Adonai are justice and strength.” All who rage against Him will come to Him ashamed, 25 but all the descendants of Isra’el will find justice and glory in Adonai. ~ Isaiah 45:14-25 (CJB)

Every knee will bow and every tongue will swear, Adonai declares. Sha’ul attributes this to Yeshua in Philippians 2:10-11.

In my next post, we learn of the Gods of Bavel in Yesha’yahu 46:1-13.

Click here for the PDF version.

Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 2 ~ Yesha’yahu 45:1-13

In my last post, we explored Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 1 in Yesha’yahu 44:24-28. In this post, we explore Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 2 in Yesha’yahu 45:1-13.

We continue to explore Adonai’s sovereignty over His creation and the future He asserts. Verses 1-8 were written at least 140 years before it was fulfilled. Recall from our last study that Koresh is Cyrus King of Persia, who was one of the greatest conquerors in world history. We will be learning quite a bit about him in this post. Adonai speaks to Koresh and announces how He intends to use Him as His agent. The passage divinely commissions Koresh. There is no reason to believe that Koresh was conscious of His role as Adonai’s agent of redemption any more than Ashur or Bavel were aware that they were used as the tool of Adonai’s anger.

1 Thus says Adonai to Koresh, His anointed, whose right hand He has grasped so that He subdues nations before Him and strips kings of their robes, so that doors open in front of him, and no gates are barred:

Adonai called Koresh His anointed. Here the use is metaphorical of Adonai’s invisible commissioning of this earthly king to function as a royal deliverer of His people. In the ancient Near East, when a god grasped the right hand of someone, it indicated special favor, commissioning, guidance, and divine endowment with skill.

2 “I will go ahead of you, leveling the hills, shattering the bronze gates, smashing the iron bars.

Adonai will cause the strong defenses of enemy cities to fall before Koresh. He will level the uneven places to speed his attack.

3 I will give you treasures hoarded in the dark, secret riches hidden away so that you will know that I, Adonai, calling you by your name, am the God of Isra’el.

As Koresh defeated nations, their wealth would come into his possession. These treasures were hidden away from the world and thus are associated with darkness and considered secret.

4 It is for the sake of Ya‘akov, My servant, yes, for Isra’el My elect, that I call you by your name and give you a title, although you don’t know me.

Adonai’s actions toward Koresh have nothing to do with Adonai’s love for Koresh or the Persians. He will use them on behalf of His people whom He calls His servant. The fact that Adonai named Koresh and called him shows that the Persian king was under His control. The fact that Adonai could forename Koresh through Yesha’yahu also shows Adonai’s ability to read the future.

5 I am Adonai; there is no other; besides Me, there is no God. I am arming you, although you don’t know Me, 6 so that those from the east and those from the west will know that there is none besides Me – I am Adonai; there is no other. 7 I form light, I create [1] darkness; I make well-being, I create woe; I, Adonai, do all these things.

No one should ascribe these great acts of redemption to any other god than Adonai. His lordship is not just over Isra’el but the entire world (from the east to the west). He is in control not only of the good things but also of the difficult things that occur in history.
8 “Heavens above, rain down justice; let the clouds pour it down. Let the earth open, so that salvation springs up, and justice sprouts with it. I, Adonai, have created it.”

The woe prophecy in verses 9-13 responds to those who would argue with Adonai for using a pagan king like Koresh to accomplish His purposes.

9 Woe to anyone who argues with his maker, like potsherds lying on the ground! Does the clay ask the potter, “What are you doing?” or, “What’s this you’re making, that has no hands?”

Human beings are the potsherds, and Adonai is the potter. This image reminds humans of their proper place in relationship to Adonai. There may be an allusion here to Genesis 2:7 where Adonai took the dust of the ground and formed Adam. Ancient Near Eastern myths describe human beings as the product of clay. Where the biblical and ancient Near Eastern accounts differ profoundly is in the second element that forms humans. In Scripture, Adonai used His breath, indicating a high view of humanity. In Mesopotamian accounts, the second element was the blood of a demon god, expressing a lower view of human life.

10 Woe to him who asks a father, “Of what are you the father?” or who asks a woman, “To what are you giving birth?”

The second metaphor of Adonai as a parent (father or mother) and His human creation as the child also expresses an unbalanced power relationship. A baby does not question his birth any more than a pot questions its creation. So why should Isra’el or we question God’s plan?

11 Thus says Adonai, the Holy One of Isra’el, his Maker: “You ask for signs concerning My children? You give orders concerning the work of my hands? 12 I am the one who made the earth! I created human beings on it! I – my hands – stretched out the heavens, and directed all their number. 13 I am stirring up Koresh to righteousness; I am smoothing out all his paths. He will rebuild my city; and he will free my exiles, taking neither ransom nor bribe,” says Adonai-Tzva’ot. ~ Isaiah 45:1-13 (CJB)

What is Adonai commissioning you to accomplish in your life?

In my next post, we learn of Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 3 in Yesha’yahu 45:14-23.

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[1] In this verse create in Hebrew is bara. That attribute is only possessed by Adonai Himself. It means to create something out of nothing.

Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 1 ~ Yesha’yahu 44:24-28

In my last post, we explored Worthless Idols in Yesha’yahu 44:6-23. In this post, we explore Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 1 in 44:24-28.

In these verses, Adonai’s sovereignty over His creation and the future is asserted. Adonai affirmed His prophets over against those prophets who deceived.

24 Here is what Adonai says, your Redeemer, He who formed you in the womb: “I am Adonai, who makes all things, who stretched out the heavens all alone, who spread out the earth all by myself.

The fact that the Bible portrays Adonai as having no equal means that all divine activity is carried out by Him. This contrasts with many of the traditions of the ancient Near East, where various deities were involved with different aspects of creation. Stretching out the heavens and spreading the earth demonstrates Adonai’s control over the cosmos. He puts it up like a Bedouin erects a tent.

25 I frustrate false prophets and their omens, I make fools of diviners, I drive back the sages and make their wisdom look silly.

Adonai confuses and destroys those who claim to reveal the future. Such people are condemned and contrasted with true prophets who received revelation from Adonai. Diviners manipulated or observed such things as sheep livers, cloud formations, and the stars to determine the future.

26 I confirm My servants’ prophecies and make My messengers’ plans succeed. I say of Yerushalayim: ‘She will be lived in,’ of the cities of Y’hudah, ‘They will be rebuilt; I will restore their ruins.’

In contrast to the false prophets are Adonai’smessengers with the message that Yerushalayim will be rebuilt and re-inhabited.

27 I say to the deep sea, ‘Dry up! I will make your streams run dry.’

Adonai’s ability to restore Yerushalayim is affirmed by reference to His control of nature, specifically that He can make bodies of water go dry. Since water is often a symbol of the forces of chaos, perhaps the meaning of this verse is that Adonai will subdue those chaotic forces that held Judah captive.

The following prophecy concerning Koresh (Cyrus), which continues in all of chapter 45 is one of the most astounding in all the Tanakh. It predicts that a man named Koresh would come on the scene, saying that Yerushalayim would be built and the foundations of the Temple would be laid. At this time, Yerushalayim was already built, and the Temple was standing tall, so what relevance could this have to anything, the people must have wondered. But 200 years later, a man named Koresh did indeed appear on the scene as king of the Persian empire. And it would be this Koresh who would give the order for the Jews to rebuild the city and temple the Bavlim had destroyed.

28 I say of Koresh, ‘He is my shepherd, he will do everything I want. He will say of Yerushalayim, “You will be rebuilt,” and of the Temple, “Your foundation will be laid.”’”  ~ Isaiah 44:24-28 (CJB)

Koresh was born about 590 BCE in the modern Iranian province of Fars. Virtually nothing is known of him until he came to the throne of Persia in 559 BCE, except for a few legends concerning his childhood written down by Herodotus, the Greek historian. [1] Yesha’yahu whose ministry spanned four kings whose reigns stretched from 742 to 686 BCE, named a ruler who was not yet born.

In my next post, we learn of Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 2 in Yesha’yahu 45:1-13.

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[1] The IVP Bible Background Commentary – Old Testament.

Worthless Idols ~ Yesha’yahu 44:6-23

In my last post, we explored Isra’el the Chosen in Yesha’yahu 44:1-5. In this post, we explore Worthless Idols in Yesha’yahu 44:6-23.

6 Thus says Adonai, Isra’el’s King and Redeemer, Adonai-Tzva’ot: “I am the first, and I am the last; besides Me, there is no God.

A long argument against idols begins with an assertion of the uniqueness of Adonai. In Revelation 1:8, we hear Yeshua declaring that He is the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last.

7 Who is like Me? Let him speak out! Let him show Me clearly what has been happening since I set up the eternal people; let him foretell future signs and events.

Only Adonai can foretell the future, something that He does through His prophets.

8 Don’t be frightened, don’t be afraid. Didn’t I tell you this long ago? I foretold it, and you are My witnesses. Is there any God besides Me? There is no other Rock – I know of none.”

The invocation of witnesses places this passage in a courtroom setting. These witnesses will bear testimony to the fact that only Adonai is a Rock – a place of protection and stability – not the false gods of the nations. As proof of His deity and supremacy, Adonai does what no other god dares to prophesy the future. And yet even this didn’t keep His people from being seduced by idols.

9 All idol-makers amount to nothing; their precious productions profit no one; and their witnesses, to their own shame, neither see nor understand. 10 Who would fashion a god or cast an image that profits no one anything? 11 All involved will be ashamed, but more than anyone else, the people who made them. Let them all be assembled, let them stand up; let them fear and be shamed together.

Verses 12-20 describe the construction and worship of an idol. Ancient texts describing the making and care of idols confirm such a process. Pagan Near Eastern religious leaders probably did not believe that an idol was the actual god, but they did believe that the god made its power and presence known in the physical object. Thus, the idol was a strong representation of the deity. Laypeople, on the other hand, likely made a stronger association between idols and the deities, taking the graven wood or metal to be a true deity. In any case, Yesha’yahu’s argument was one that reduced all idolatry to its absurd foundation.

12 A blacksmith makes a tool over burning coals; with his strong arm, he shapes it with hammers. But when he gets hungry, his strength fails; if he doesn’t drink water, he grows tired. 13 A carpenter takes his measurements, sketches the shape with a stylus, planes the wood, checks it with calipers, and carves it into the shape of a man; and, since it is honored like a man, of course, it has to live in a house.

Some ancient idols were made from metal and others from wood. The description of their manufacture emphasizes that these were human creations.

14 He goes to chop down cedars; he takes an evergreen and an oak; he especially tends one tree in the forest, plants a pine for the rain to nourish.

Yesha’yahu went back in this verse to the beginning of the process of constructing an idol – the planting and cultivation of a tree.

15 In time, when it’s ready for use as fuel, he takes some of it to keep himself warm and burns some more to bake bread. Then he makes a god and worships it, carves it into an idol and falls down before it. 16 So half of it he burns in the fire; with that half, he roasts meat and eats his fill; he warms himself; says, “It feels so good, getting warm while watching the flames!” 17 With the rest of the log he fashions a god, a carved image, then falls down before it; he worships it and prays to it. “Save me,” he says, “for you are my god!” 18 Such people know nothing, understand nothing. Their eyes are sealed shut so that they can’t see; their hearts too, so they can’t understand.

These verses express the ultimate absurdity of idolatry. The same wood used to construct an idol was also used for kindling a fire to keep warm and to cook food. Yesha’yahu was aware that ancient Near Eastern people utilized rituals that intended to turn the wooden idol into an object of worship.

19 Not one thinks to himself or has the knowledge or the discernment to say, “I burned half of it in the fire, baked bread on its coals, roasted meat and ate it. Should I now make the rest an abomination? Should I prostrate myself to a tree trunk?” 20 He is relying on ashes! A deceived heart has led him astray; so that now he won’t save himself, just won’t say, “This thing in my hand is a fraud!”

This thing in my hand is a fraud is a reference to an idol that represented a false god and was nothing at all. Not only is there stupidity in idolatry, but there is a tragedy, as well, because of its inability to deliver. Idols can’t deliver you, but they can and will dehumanize you.

3 Our God is in heaven; he does whatever pleases him. 4 Their idols are mere silver and gold, made by human hands. 5 They have mouths, but they can’t speak; they have eyes, but they can’t see; 6 they have ears, but they can’t hear; they have noses, but they can’t smell; 7 they have hands, but they can’t feel; they have feet, but they can’t walk; with their throats they can’t make a sound. 8 The people who make them will become like them, along with everyone who trusts in them. ~ Psalm 115:3-8 (CJB)

A person becomes like that which he worships. When we worship the Lord, we become more like Him (see 2 Corinthians 3:18). Conversely, if we worship an idol, we’ll become like that idol.

21 “Keep these matters in mind, Ya‘akov, for you, Isra’el, are My servant. I formed you; you are My own servant; Isra’el, don’t forget Me.

Isra’el will benefit from remembering the lesson about the absurdity of idolatry since that will keep Adonai’s people from practicing false worship. Adonai formed His people; they did not create their god as the idolaters did. Isra’el was the servant of Adonai. Even to these people who are trapped by idols, even to these people struggling with sin, the Lord says, “I have not forgotten you.”

22 Like a thick cloud, I wipe away your offenses; like a cloud, your sins. Come back to Me, for I have redeemed you.” 23 Sing, you heavens, for Adonai has done it! Shout, you depths of the earth! Mountains, break out into song, along with every tree in the forest! For Adonai has redeemed Ya‘akov; He glorifies Himself in Isra’el. ~ Isaiah 44:6-23 (CJB)

That’s the good news of the Gospel. This is what makes evangelism so exciting. We can go to people and proclaim the good news that their sins are forgiven, that Adonai neither records nor remembers their sin.

In my next post, we learn of Yerushalayim to Be Inhabited ~ Part 1 in Yesha’yahu 44:24-28.

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Isra’el the Chosen ~ Yesha’yahu 44:1-5

In my last post, we explored Isra’el’s Unfaithfulness and Adonai’s Mercy in 43:14-28. In this post, we explore Isra’el the Chosen in 44:1-5.

1 “Now listen, Ya‘akov my servant, Isra’el whom I have chosen:

Again, Ya‘akov or Isra’el is explicitly identified as Adonai’s servant. Adonai had chosen Isra’el from among the nations to be His special people (Deuteronomy 7:7-11).

2 Thus says Adonai, who made you, formed you in the womb, and will help you: ‘Don’t be afraid, Ya‘akov my servant, Yeshurun, whom I have chosen. 3 For I will pour water on the thirsty land and streams on the dry ground; I will pour My Spirit on your descendants, My blessing on your offspring.

The phrase formed you in the womb evokes the metaphor of Adonai as the mother who gave birth to Isra’el. Yeshurun was an endearing name for Isra’el (see Deuteronomy 32:15; 33:5, 26). The meaning of the name is somewhat obscure, but some think it is derived from a Hebrew root meaning “upright or virtuous.” The results are growth, in this case, among the descendants of the people of Adonai.

The outpouring of His Spirit was previewed on the Day of Shavuot (Pentecost), but it was not entirely fulfilled for Joel 2 speaks of signs in the sky, of the moon turning to blood, and various symbols associated with the Tribulation period. Adonai promises that He will pour His Spirit upon our offspring. We all need His Spirit to be poured upon us, our family, and our country.

4 They will spring up among the grass like willows on the riverbanks. 5 One will say, “I belong to Adonai.’’ Another will be called by the name of Ya‘akov. Yet another will write that he belongs to Adonai and adopt the surname Isra’el.’” ~ Isaiah 44:1-5 (CJB)

They in verse 4 refers to the offspring. Writing on one’s hand signified intimacy, though some believe it refers to a slave mark showing ownership. In either case, the idea is that people will want to identify and align themselves with Adonai.

In that day, when Isra’el experiences revival in the Tribulation period, when the Spirit is poured out upon Isra’el, no longer will her people be agnostic as eighty percent of the Jewish nation is today. They’ll call themselves Adonai’s. They’ll remember their heritage and roots and take upon themselves the name of Adonai.

In my next post, we learn of Worthless Idols in 44:6-23.

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