Patience in Suffering
We learned in our last post that the oppressors would be punished, but the oppressed have to wait on God rather than take matters violently into their own hands. This exhortation did not mean they could not speak out against injustice; it only forbade violence and personally hostile speech (5:9) as an appropriate solution to injustice. Oh, how we have forgotten this in our society today.
7 So, brothers, be patient until the Lord returns. See how the farmer waits for the precious “fruit of the earth”—he is patient over it until it receives the fall and spring rains. 8 You too, be patient; keep up your courage; for the Lord’s return is near.
Until the Lord returns, anticipates an end to all exploitation and suffering. Consequently, the oppressed should exercise self-control in their reaction to their oppressors. “Fruit of the earth” is a quotation from the b’rakhah (blessing) said before eating berries or vegetables, “Blessed are you, Adonai our God, King of the universe, creator of the fruit of the earth.” This is the blessing that Yeshua spoke over the wine during the Last Supper.
The fall and spring rains reference the climatic pattern in Isra’el, where the bulk of the rainfall comes between November and March. Harvest here becomes an image of the day of judgment, as elsewhere in Jewish literature. The Lord’s return is near, follows up his remark that this is the acharit-hayamim as we learned in verse 5:3 in our last post.
9 Don’t grumble against one another, brothers so that you won’t come under condemnation – look! The Judge is standing at the door! This repeats the warning of 4:11–12.
10 As an example of suffering mistreatment and being patient, brothers, take the prophets who spoke in the name of Adonai.
Most Tanakh prophets faced significant opposition for their preaching, some faced death. Jewish tradition had amplified martyrdom accounts even further; hence no one would dispute Ya’akov’s claim. Virtuous examples were an essential part of ancient argumentation.
11 Look, we regard those who persevered as blessed. You have heard of the perseverance of Iyov (Job), and you know what the purpose of Adonai was, that Adonai is very compassionate and merciful.
The perseverance of Iyov (Job), and you know what the purpose of Adonai was, is reflected in Milton’s “Paradise Lost,” “to justify the ways of God to man.” Iyov’s troubles began when God chose to answer HaSatan’s challenge by permitting him to touch Iyov’s possessions and person, except that he could not take Iyov’s life (Job 1–2). Iyov persevered in the face of all his losses and pains, magnified by the unhelpful advice of his “friends” (Job 3–37). In the end, God vindicated himself and proved to Iyov that only God had the power and wisdom to deal with HaSatan.
12 Above all, brothers, stop swearing oaths – not “By heaven,” not “By the earth,” and not by any other formula; rather, let your “Yes” be simply “Yes” and your “No” simply “No,” so that you won’t fall under condemnation. ~ Ya’akov 5:7-12 (CJB)
Yeshua taught similarly at Matthew 5:33–37. We dare not take an oath if we do not know what tomorrow will bring because it is such a serious commitment. The law required a person to be true to an oath they had taken (Lev 19:12). A person should avoid invoking God’s name in a false oath.
In our next post, we complete our study of Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about The Prayer of Faith.