Epistle of Ya’akov ~ 5:1-6

Warning to the Rich

Well, we are on the downslope of our review of the Epistle of Ya’akov. Chapter 5 continues his previous thoughts from 4:13–17. They also convey Yeshua’s thoughts recorded in Matthew 6:19–20. Commentaries that understand this condemnation to be directed at nonbelieving Jews (like 2:6–7) feed antisemitism by lending supposed biblical support to the miserly and oppressive Jew’s caricature and misunderstand the prophetic task. In the Tanakh, Psalm 73 and Isaiah 5:8 are similarly critical of the arrogant rich without excluding them from God’s people Isra’el, and there are other similar passages in the Prophets. This paragraph, which addresses the rich directly, must be understood as meant for wealthy Believers, who will read it, not for un-Believers, who won’t. (However, its truth applies to them as well.) [1]

Next, a word for the rich: weep and wail over the hardships coming upon you! Your riches have rotted, and your clothes have become moth-eaten; your gold and silver have corroded, and their corrosion will be evidence against you and will eat up your flesh like fire! This is the acharit-hayamim (the end of days), and you have been storing up wealth!

Exhortations to weep and wail was a graphic prophetic way of saying: You will have reason to weep and wail. Clothing was one of the primary signs of wealth in antiquity; many peasants had only one garment.

At the heart of pride is often a love for money – that is, materialism. Ya’akov isn’t condemning money itself. Some of God’s servants were wealthy (e.g., Avraham, Iyov), and money was not their problem. Condemned here is a mindset that turns gold into a god. Ya’akov addressed riches previously (1:10–11; 2:1–4), but in 5:1–6, he rebukes the rich people among his readers whose hearts were devoted to materialism. Theirs is a sin that transcends time. If you live in modern America, you are tempted to be a materialist. [2]

Listen! The wages you have fraudulently withheld from the workers who mowed your fields are calling out against you, and the outcries of those who harvested have reached the ears of Adonai-Tzva’ot.

The wages you have fraudulently withheld compares to Leviticus 19:13, Do not oppress or rob your neighbor; specifically, you are not to keep back the wages of a hired worker all night until morning. (see also Deuteronomy 24:14–15 and Malachi 3:5.) The outcries … have reached the ears of Adonai-Tzva’ot, like those of Avel’s blood (Genesis 4:10) and the Israelites in Egypt (Exodus 3:7). God saw the sin in these cases and dealt with it; likewise, He will not ignore injustice toward workers.

The income absentee landlords received from agriculture was such that the wages they paid workers could not even begin to reflect the profits they accumulated. Although the rich supported public building projects (in return for attached inscriptions honoring them), they were far less inclined to pay sufficient wages to their workers. At least as early as the second century, Jewish teachers suggested that even failing to leave gleanings for the poor was robbing them (based on Lev. 19:9–10; 23:22; Deut. 24:19).

You have led a life of luxury and self-indulgence here on earth – in a time of slaughter, you have gone on eating to your heart’s content. You have condemned; you have murdered the innocent; they have not withstood you. ~ Ya’akov 5:1-6 (CJB)

The rich consumed much meat in a day of slaughter; once an animal was slaughtered, as much as possible was eaten at once because the rest could be preserved only by drying and salting. The meat was generally unavailable to the poor except during public festivals.

The picture here is of the rich being fattened like cattle for the day of their slaughter (see Jer. 12:3 & Amos 4:1–3). As often in the Tanakh (Amos 6:4–7), the sin in verse 5 is not exploitation per se (as in v. 4) but a lavish lifestyle while others go hungry or in need is.[3]

In our next post, we learn more from Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about Patience in Suffering.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Stern, D. H. (1996). Jewish New Testament Commentary.
[2] Evans, T. (2019). The Tony Evans Bible Commentary.
[3] Keener, C. S. (1993). The IVP Bible background commentary: New Testament (Jas 5:6).

Epistle of Ya’akov ~ 4:11-17

Warning Against Weariness ~ Part 2

We continue to explore what Ya’akov warns us about growing weary. Ya’akov returns to the specific worldly behavior his readers are following ~ violent speech (see also 3:1–12). He either addresses social stratification within the Messianic community or, more likely, uses brothers in its more common Jewish sense of fellow Jews. Jewish revolutionaries had already begun killing aristocrats, and inflammatory rhetoric was certainly even more common. His general principle was standard Tanakh and Jewish wisdom opposing slander, which many of his readers may not have been considering in this context. The law declared God’s love for Isra’el and commanded His people to love one another; to slander, a fellow Jew was thus to disrespect the law.[1]

11 Brothers, stop speaking against each other! Whoever speaks against a brother or judges a brother is speaking against Torah and judging Torah. And if you judge Torah, you are not a doer of what Torah says, but a judge. 12 There is but one Giver of Torah; He is also the Judge, with the power to deliver and to destroy. Who do you think you are, judging your fellow human being?

Stop speaking against each other! One who speaks against or judges a brother is arrogating to himself the position of a judge, that is, of God, who has the power to deliver and to destroy. The most important part of the Torah is, Love your neighbor as yourself (Leviticus 19;18). In saying this, the Torah does not distinguish the righteous neighbor from the wicked one. Yeshua taught that the neighbor could be a Samaritan, that is, someone who is usually the object of adverse prejudgment.

13 Now listen, you who say, “Today or tomorrow we will go to such-and-such a city, stay there a year trading and make a profit”!

John MacArthur opines that: Ya’akov does not condemn wise business planning, but rather planning that leaves out God. The people so depicted are practical atheists, living their lives and making their plans as if God did not exist. Such conduct is inconsistent with genuine saving faith, which submits to God. [2]

14 You don’t even know if you will be alive tomorrow! For all you are is a mist that appears for a little while and then disappears. 15 Instead, you ought to say, “If Adonai wants it to happen, we will live” to do this or that. 16 But as it is, in your arrogance you boast. All such boasting is evil.

Well, verse 14 is a real downer, but true nevertheless! However, planning is an important ingredient of today’s managerial society, but it is easy for planners to forget that they stand only as God permits – not only their plans, but they themselves. Hence, If Adonai wants it to happen, we will live to do this or that. If we don’t live, what good will the plans do? Don’t boast about tomorrow, for you don’t know what the day may bring. ~ Proverbs 27:1.

17 So then, anyone who knows the right thing to do and fails to do it is committing a sin. ~ Ya’akov 4:11-17 (CJB)

Anyone who knows the right thing to do and fails to do it is committing a sin of omission far more serious than the sin of those who are uninformed – as is clear from Luke 2:47–48, 2 Kefa 2:21. Romans 14:23 makes a related yet distinct point. In this specific situation, the sin is to announce plans as if we could control all the circumstances, failing to acknowledge that God is in charge and our plans depend on his will.

In our next post, we learn more from Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about Warning to the Rich.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Keener, C. S. (1993). The IVP Bible background commentary: New Testament: InterVarsity Press.

[2] MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (2006). The MacArthur Study Bible: New American Standard Bible. Thomas Nelson Publishers.

Epistle of Ya’akov ~ 4:1-10

Warning Against Weariness ~ Part 1

What is causing all the quarrels and fights among you? Isn’t it your desires battling inside you? You desire things and don’t have them. You kill, and you are jealous, and you still can’t get them. So, you fight and quarrel. The reason you don’t have is that you don’t pray! Or you pray and don’t receive because you pray with the wrong motive, that of wanting to indulge your own desires.

You pray with the wrong motive. There is a heresy current among Believers, which, feeding off the excessive individualism and greed rampant in popular Western ideologies, purports to give God’s approval to selfish prayer. It beckons: “You are a child of God. He is a loving Father who would deny His children nothing. Therefore, you can pray for anything you want, and God will give it to you. Do you want a new car? A bigger house? Fancy clothes? Just ‘ask, and it will be given to you’ (Lk 11:10).” Besides misusing Scripture, raising false hopes, and making prayer a magic charm indistinct from witchcraft, this teaching ignores the fact that a truly loving father does not give his children whatever they ask for; fathers know better than their children what they need and act accordingly. The present verse refutes this selfish philosophy masquerading as biblical teaching.[1]

We will learn more about Ya‛akov’s scathing condemnation of the arrogant rich when we dig into 4:13–5:6.

You unfaithful wives! Don’t you know that loving the world is hating God? Whoever chooses to be the world’s friend makes himself God’s enemy! 

You unfaithful wives! In the Tanakh, Israel’s unfaithfulness to God her Ba’al (the Hebrew word means both “lord” and “husband”) is often expressed in terms of adultery and whoredom; see Ezekiel 23; Hosea 1–2, 9:1. Yeshua means the same thing when He calls His generation wicked and adulterous (Mt 12:39, 16:4).

Or do you suppose the Scripture speaks in vain when it says that there is a spirit in us which longs to envy? But the grace He gives is greater, which is why it says,

“God opposes the arrogant,
but to the humble he gives grace.”

Do you suppose the Tanakh speaks in vain when it says that there is a spirit in us which longs to envy? Bible scholars have had difficulty interpreting verse 6 since it is not an exact quote from the Tanakh. David Stern opines that Ya‛akov appears to be referring to Genesis 4:7, where God says to Cain, If you are doing what is good, shouldn’t you hold your head high? And if you don’t do what is good, sin is crouching at the door—it wants you, but you can rule over it. All understand this to be speaking about HaSatan, who is the evil impulse in man.

Therefore, submit to God. Moreover, take a stand against the Adversary, and he will flee from you.

Take a stand against the Adversary (HaSatan) who stalks about like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour ~ 1 Kefa 5:8–9. Although he is the god of this world (2Cor. 4:4), Yeshua has overcome the world (John 16:33). Therefore, if you use Scripture properly (2 Tim. 2:15, Matt. 4:1–11) and employ the other available means of spiritual warfare (2Cor. 10:3–5, Ephesians 6:10–18), he will flee from you. The verse carries the same message as Genesis 4:7 (see above).

Come close to God, and He will come close to you. Clean your hands, sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded people!

Come close to God, and He will come close to you, as in Zechariah 1:3 Therefore, tell them that Adonai-Tzva’ot says this: “Return to me,” says Adonai-Tzva’ot, “and I will return to you,” says Adonai-Tzva’ot. Here the initiative for reconciliation is ours; elsewhere, Scripture places it in God’s hands, as at Lamentations 5:21 and Ephesians 2:4–10. Yochanan 3:16 expresses both sides equally.

Clean your hands … purify your hearts. Compare Isaiah 1:15–16: When you spread out your hands, I will hide my eyes from you; even when you make many prayers, I will not hear—for your hands are full of blood. Wash yourselves, make yourselves clean; put away the evil of your doings from before my eyes; cease to do evil, learn to do good; seek justice, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. Also, Psalm 24:4(3): Who shall ascend into the mountain of Adonai? Who shall stand in his holy place? He who has clean hands and a pure heart.

9 Wail, mourn, sob! Let your laughter be turned into mourning and your joy into gloom! 10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up. ~ 4:1-10 (CJB)

Verses 9-10 explain what is meant by purifying one’s heart in v. 8.

We will learn more from Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about Warning Against Worldliness ~ Part 2.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Stern, D. H. (1996). Jewish New Testament Commentary.

Epistle of Ya’akov ~ 3:13-18

Wisdom from Above

In this post, we learn that there are two kinds of wisdom. That which is worldly, unspiritual, and demonic produces jealousy and selfish ambition, followed by disharmony and every foul practice. But the wisdom from above is from the Father, with whom there is neither variation nor darkness (1:17); it is extolled in Proverbs 8:22ff. Also, compare Isaiah 32:17 and Hebrews 12:11.

You may want to go back to Ya’akov 1:5-8 and review what he said about wisdom earlier.

13 Who among you is wise and understanding? Let him demonstrate it by his good way of life, by actions done in the humility that grows out of wisdom.

The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Tanakh, often employs wise and understanding to describe a person who lives following the insight given by God (Deut. 1:13, 15; 4:6). People demonstrate wisdom if their deeds reflect God’s commands. Those who are wise should demonstrate their wisdom by actions done in the humility that grows out of wisdom.

14 But if you harbor in your heart’s bitter jealousy and selfish ambition, don’t boast and attack the truth with lies!

Bitter jealousy and selfish ambition are the opposite of true wisdom as characterized by humility. They are also far different from the righteous character of a jealous God (Ex. 20:5; 34:14; Deut. 4:24), who appropriately yearns for His honor and the loyal devotion of His people, while the envious yearn for what does not belong to them. Selfish ambition is a divisive willingness to split the group to achieve personal power and prestige.

15 This wisdom is not the kind that comes down from above; on the contrary, it is worldly, unspiritual, demonic.

Worldly, unspiritual, demonic describes behavior that progresses from bad to worse, recalling the list in vv. 5b–6. Such behavior is ultimately earthbound, absolutely sensual as opposed to spiritual, and its origin is in the cosmic powers of darkness.

16 For where there are jealousy and selfish ambition, there will be disharmony and every foul practice.

Ya’akov describes the evil consequences of false wisdom. Earthly wisdom leads to jealousy and selfish ambition, culminating in a troubling situation for Messianic communities causing disharmony and every foul practice.

17 But the wisdom from above is, first of all, pure, then peaceful, kind, open to reason, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality and without hypocrisy.

The virtues Ya’akov lists are predominantly non-selfish and non-aggressive; those who practice these virtues show more concern for others than themselves. They are opposite of the vices described in vv. 14–16.

The answer to the disharmony and every foul practice (v.16) is to seek wisdom from above, which produces character qualities beginning with purity and concluding with mercy (cf. Gal. 5:22–23, where Godly qualities are the fruit of the Spirit).

18 And peacemakers who sow seed in peace raise a harvest of righteousness. ~ Ya’akov 3:13-18 (CJB)

The legacy of those who bring peace rather than conflict is a harvest of righteousness. The fruit that comes from peacemaking in the Messianic community will be the righteous conduct that God will bless.

We will learn more from Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about Warning Against Worldliness.

Click here for the PDF version.

Epistle of Ya’akov [1] ~ 3:1-12

Taming the Tongue

These verses can be taken in three ways: addressing topics related to teachers in the Messianic community, as instruction generally applicable to all Believers, or as instruction applicable to both groups in some sense. In these verses, Ya’akov addresses issues related to the dangers of speech.

Ya’akov echoes Yeshua’s emphasis on the crucial importance of the use of words in daily life (Matt. 12:36; Mark 7:20–23). From his discourse on idle faith, Ya’akov proceeded to discuss idle speech. The failure to bridle the tongue mentioned earlier (1:26) is now expanded. As disturbing as those who have faith with no works are those Messianics who substitute words for works. One’s tongue should be controlled. Small though it is, the tongue is powerful and all too prone to perversion and pollution.

Teachers were particularly vulnerable to errors of speech.

1 Not many of you should become teachers, my brothers, for you know that we who teach will be judged with greater strictness.

For other teachers of the Word and me, this is one of the scariest verses in the Word of God. Pray for us who do and for discernment for you that they rightly preach God’s Word.

For we all stumble in many ways. And if anyone does not stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able also to bridle his whole body. If we put bits into the mouths of horses so that they obey us, we guide their whole bodies as well. Look at the ships also: though they are so large and are driven by strong winds, they are guided by a very small rudder wherever the will of the pilot directs. So also the tongue is a small member, yet it boasts of great things. How great a forest is set ablaze by such a small fire! And the tongue is a fire, a world of unrighteousness. The tongue is set among our members, staining the whole body, setting on fire the entire course of life, and set on fire by hell.

Here, Ya’akov utilizes three images to illustrate that a small thing, like the tongue, can have far-reaching effects. He uses a horse’s bit (v. 3) and a ship’s rudder (v. 4) to convey that those who have control over their tongues have control over themselves. He also uses the image of fire (v.6) to convey that the tongue has great potential for destruction and harm.

Others also compared the spread of rumors to the igniting of what would rapidly become a forest fire. Here the image is that of a tongue that incites the whole body to violence. The boastful tongue plotting harm (Ps 52:1–4) and the tongue as a hostile fire (Ps 39:1–3; 120:2–4; Prov 16:27; 26:21; Ecclus 28:21–23) are old images. The fire is sparked by “hell” suggests where it leads; Jewish pictures of Gehenna, like Yeshua’s images for the fate of the damned, typically included flame.

For every kind of beast and bird, of reptile and sea creature, can be tamed and has been tamed by mankind,

Every kind beast and birdBeing compared to the elements or creatures of nature would have been particularly degrading to Ya’akov’s audience. Jewish writers often use this comparison to dehumanize and emphasize less-than-human behaviors.

8, but no human being can tame the tongue. It is a restless evil, full of deadly poison.

The tongue … is a restless evil. The Hebrew phrase refers to gossiping, backbiting, rumormongering, slander, and other misuses of speech. The Talmud condemns it severely: it is weighed equally with the sins of idolatry, sexual immorality, and murder. These three sins named are those for which, according to the Talmud, Jew is supposed to give up his life rather than commit. [2]

With it, we bless our Lord and Father, and with it, we curse people who are made in the likeness of God.

It is both hypocrisy and folly to bless God during a worship service and then, after the service, to curse someone made in God’s image (see Gen. 1:26–27). If the curse implies the common practice of invoking the name of God against the person, then this is doubly heinous.

10 From the same mouth come blessing and cursing. My brothers, these things ought not to be so. 11 Does a spring pour forth from the same opening both fresh and saltwater?

Fresh and saltwater … a tongue that dishonors God is not compatible with the speech that honors Him.

12 Can a fig tree, my brothers, bear olives, or a grapevine produce figs? Neither can a salt pond yield fresh water. ~ Ya’akov 3:1-12 (CJB)

A fig tree … bear olives? It is against a tree’s nature to produce two kinds of fruit. [3] Similarly, a Believer’s mouth is not intended for both evil and good speech.

We will learn more from Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about Wisdom from Above.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] I assume by now that you know that James’ Hebrew name is Ya’akov.

[2] Stern, D. H. (1996). Jewish New Testament Commentary.

[3] Well, that statement may get me into trouble with my gardening or farming friends. That’s why I emphasized nature.”

Epistle of Ya’akov (James) ~ 2:1-13

The Sin of Partiality

This passage is concerned with how Believers, specifically Messianic Jews, treat non-Messianic Jews inquiring about the Brit Hadashah faith. In Isra’el, as in most of the Roman Empire, the rich were oppressing the poor (2:6–7). But the temptation to make wealthy converts or inquirers feel welcome at the expense of the poor was immoral (2:4). The language of impartiality was commonly applied mainly to legal settings. Still, because synagogues served as houses of prayer and community courts, this predominantly legal image naturally applies to any gatherings.

My brothers, practice the faith of our Lord Yeshua, the glorious Messiah, without showing favoritism. Suppose a man comes into your synagogue wearing gold rings and fancy clothes, and also a poor man comes in dressed in rags. If you show more respect to the man wearing the fancy clothes and say to him, “Have this good seat here,” while to the poor man you say, “You, stand over there,” or, “Sit down on the floor by my feet,” then aren’t you creating distinctions among yourselves, and haven’t you made yourselves into judges with evil motives?

Your synagogue is talking neither about a Christian church service nor a gathering of Jewish nonBelievers but a Messianic synagogue. He would not refer to your synagogue and assume his readers were in charge of seating visitors if the Messianic Jews did not control the synagogue. This verse establishes a solid Brit Hadasah basis for modern-day Messianic synagogues, provided they do not exclude Gentile Believers. To do so would raise the middle wall of partition once again, in violation of Ephesians 2:11–16. A Messianic synagogue, while committed to preserving and developing a Jewish rather than a Gentile mode of expressing New Covenant faith, must be open to participation by believing Jews and Gentiles alike, as was Congregation Heart for Isra’el.

Listen, my dear brothers, hasn’t God chosen the poor of the world to be rich in faith (see Matthew 5:3) and to receive the Kingdom which he promised to those who love him? But you despise the poor! Aren’t the rich the ones who oppress you and drag you into court? Aren’t they the ones who insult the good name of Him to whom you belong?

Why treat the rich nonbelieving Jews in some particular way when they are the ones who oppress you and drag you possibly into a beit-din, a Jewish religious court, and insult the good name of him to whom you belong, namely, our Lord Yeshua, the glorious Messiah?

If you truly attain the goal of Kingdom Torah, in conformity with the passage that says, “Love your neighbor as yourself,” you are doing well.

Kingdom Torah is not a new Torah given by the Messiah. It does not make the Mosaic Law obsolete, even though, as Galatians 5:14 puts it, the whole of the Torah is summed up in this one sentence: Love your neighbor as yourself.” (See also Romans 13:8–10.) Instead, Ya’akov means that Kingdom Torah is, in essence, nothing other than the Torah of Moses carried out, by the power of the Ruach HaKodesh, in conformity with its own passage that says, Love your neighbor as yourself.”Yeshua was pointing in this direction when He said that this is one of the two mitzvot(principles) on which all of the Torah and the Prophets depend (Matt. 22:40).

But if you show favoritism, your actions constitute sin since you are convicted under the Torah as transgressors.

If you show favoritism, your actions constitute sin, no matter how much faith you claim to have.

The Torah condemns favoritism in another context with these words: Do not respect persons in judgment but hear the small as well as the great; do not be afraid of the face of any man, for the judgment is God’s. ~ Deuteronomy 1:17.

10 For a person who keeps the whole Torah, yet stumbles at one point, has become guilty of breaking them all. 11 For the One who said, “Don’t commit adultery,” also said, “Don’t murder.” Now, if you don’t commit adultery but do murder, you have become a transgressor of the Torah.

A person who keeps the whole Torah, yet stumbles at one point, has become guilty of breaking them all, that is, of breaking all the points of the Torah, as illustrated by v. 11. No one can have a right relationship with God apart from Yeshua. But it is not true that once violating a commandment means that one has broken the Torah permanently and is impossible to repair. That is not what this verse is saying. And it is certainly not true that the Mosaic Law as given was unfulfillable.

12 Keep speaking and acting like people who will be judged by a Torah, which gives freedom. 13 For judgment will be without mercy toward one who doesn’t show mercy, but mercy wins out over judgment. ~ Ya’akov 2:1-13 (CJB)

Therefore, speak and act with the knowledge that you will stand before the judgment of Yeshua one day. Everyone who enters our Kehillahs should experience them as environments of mercy and hope. If you don’t show mercy, don’t expect mercy. If you don’t offer hope, don’t expect hope. Confess any partiality in your life and look for opportunities to show mercy, for mercy wins out over judgment.

We will learn more about Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about Faith Without Works Is Dead.

Click here for the PDF version.

Epistle of Ya’akov (James) ~ 1:17-27

 

Testing of Our Trust [1] (Faith) ~ Part 3

17 Every good act of giving and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father who made the heavenly lights; with Him, there is neither variation nor darkness caused by turning.

Heavenly lights … variation … darkness caused by turning – astronomical language: either eclipse or phases of the moon. Ya‛akov’s cosmology was more Copernican than Ptolemaic; the Roman Catholic Church’s condemnation of Galileo (recently corrected) was inconsistent with this verse. The meaning, of course, is that God does not change. [2]

18 Having made His decision, He gave birth to us through a Word that can be relied upon, in order that we should be a kind of firstfruits of all that He created.

Having made his decision of His own free will, by grace and not because He owed it to us, God gave birth to us through a Word that can be relied upon (see Rom. 10:17). The Word of Truth is Yeshua the Messiah; this is taught most clearly by the Gospel of Yochanan (see Yochanan 1:1, 14; 3:5–8; 15:26; 16:7–15; also 1 Yochanan 5:4–8). We are a kind of firstfruits of all that God created, as can be inferred from Rom. 8:19–23, 29; 1 Cor. 15:20, 23.

Ya’akov now turns to appropriate ways to deal with testing (1:2–18). The Zealot-like model, which was gaining popularity in Isra’el and ultimately led to Yerushaliyim’s destruction, was inappropriate. Ya’akov condemns not only violent acts but also the violent rhetoric that incites them.[3]

19 Therefore, my dear brothers, let every person be quick to listen but slow to speak, slow to get angry;

This is one of my favorite verses. I have to be mindful of it every day so I don’t get myself in trouble, which I occasionally do.

Let every person be quick to listen but slow to speak (compare 3:3–12), slow to get angry (compare Ecclesiastes 7:9). [4] Can modern psychology match this advice for improving interpersonal relations? When someone does or says something that would typically provoke quick angry speech, invite him to explain more clearly what he has done or said; listen carefully to him, trying to understand him and his situation; and respond in love, aware that, like you, he was made in the image of God (3:9, Genesis 1:27).

20 for a person’s anger does not accomplish God’s righteousness!

The history of Judeo-Christian relations is riddled with the sad consequences of Believers’ failure to heed this verse. If Jews have tenaciously refused to trust in Yeshua, it is partly because frustrated Believers have attempted to accomplish God’s righteousness through their anger. It cannot be done. Jews receive God’s righteousness through Believers’ mercy, not their anger, through their humility, not their arrogance.

The overall theme of the remainder of Chapter 1 is having received the new birth through a Word of God (v. 18), we should receive it (v. 21) and do it (v. 22). True religion involves not only hearing but doing (vv. 22–27). The entire letter emphasizes deed over creed, action over the profession, and the usual Jewish approach to religion, morals, and life.

21 So rid yourselves of all vulgarity and obvious evil and receive meekly the Word implanted in you that can save your lives. 22 Don’t deceive yourselves by only hearing what the Word says but do it! 23 For whoever hears the Word but doesn’t do what it says is like someone who looks at his face in a mirror, 24 who looks at himself, goes away and immediately forgets what he looks like. 25 But if a person looks closely into the perfect Torah, which gives freedom, and continues, becoming not a forgetful hearer but a doer of the work it requires, then he will be blessed in what he does.

Someone who looks at his face in a mirror, who looks at himself, goes away and immediately forgets what he looks like – instead of grooming him or herself to face the day – is failing to use the mirror correctly, that is, actively instead of passively. The perfect Torah is the Believer’s perfect, complete mirror; it perfectly, ultimately reflects their ungroomed (i.e., sinful) condition – as Sha’ul puts it,what Torah really does is show people how sinful they are” (Ro 3:20). The Believer uses the perfect mirror’s assessment of his spiritual condition to correct and groom their behavior. As with the bathroom mirror, they continue to use it this way throughout their lives.

26 Anyone who thinks he is religiously observant but does not control his tongue is deceiving himself, and his observance counts for nothing.

Anyone who thinks he is religiously observant. Greek thrêskos in this verse and thrêskeia (“religious observance”) in the next connote zeal in performing religious acts, whether in connection with true religion or false. In Jewish terms, one could say, equivalently, “Anyone who thinks he is “dati” (“religious”) or “frum” (Yiddish, “pious”) or “shomer-mitzvot” (“one who observes the commandments” of the Torah) but does not control his tongue is deceiving himself. [5]

27 The religious observance that God the Father considers pure and faultless is this: to care for orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being contaminated by the world.  ~ Ya’akov 1:17-27 (CJB).

This verse, apparently based on Isaiah 1:15–16 (quoted in Ya’akov 4:8), sums up the burden of all the Prophets, who zealously insisted that true religion must consist not in mere external observances but good deeds flowing from a sound spiritual condition. In reducing the Torah to two commandments – the one urging a practical expression of self-giving love toward those who can offer little or nothing in return, the other concerning the inward spiritual and outward ethical purity prerequisite to right action – Ya‛akov entered a time-honored Jewish tradition of epitomizing the Torah, as is seen from the well-known Talmud passage, Makkot 23b–24a, quoted in Ga 5:14N. This verse, like the book of Galatians, is a warning to Believers who become enamored of specific observances at the expense of the weightier matters of the Torah—justice, mercy, trust” (Mt 23:23).

We will learn a little more about Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about the Sin of Partiality.

Click here for the PDF version.

 

[1] Recall that the Complete Jewish Bible translates the Hebrew word for faith as trust.

[2] Stern, D. H. (1996). Jewish New Testament Commentary.

[3] Keener, C. S. (1993). The IVP Bible background commentary: New Testament (Jas 1:19–27).

[4] I really like how frequently Brit Hadashah authors refer back to the Tanakh.

[5] Ibid.

Epistle of Ya’akov (Ya’akov) ~ 1:9-16

Testing of Our Trust [1] (Faith) ~ Part 2

Let the brother in humble circumstances boast about his high position.

The rich don’t undergo economic trials. They experience temptation, while it is the poor who pass through economic suffering and trials. Their wealth too easily removes any sense of need or commitment to God and leads to total dependence on the things of the world. The social stratification that stood between rich and poor was even more pronounced in the Roman world than it is in our modern world. Ya’akov emphasizes here that people are not superior just because they inherit wealth, but many of us act as if that is the case and deep down actually believe it is so. The teaching of all of Scripture is that before God all people are equal and must equally place their dependence on God rather than on their earthly resources. However, that is more easily said than done for the wealthy, who have so much of the world’s resources at their disposal.

10 But let the rich brother boast about his being humbled; since, like a wildflower, he will pass away. 11 For just as the sun rises with the sharav and dries up the plant so that its flower falls off and its beauty is destroyed, so too the rich person going about his business will wither away.

The sharav is the hot, dry wind that blows across Isra’el from the deserts east of the Land in the spring and (less often) in the fall. Weather like this made Jonah faint and want to die (Jonah 4:8). Compare Isaiah 40:7 (The grass withers, the flower fades when a wind from Adonai blows upon it.); Psalm 102:4, 11.

The poor boast in the fact that Yeshua has exalted them above their earthly station. The boasting of the wealthy should rejoice in the opposite, that Yeshua will remove earthly glory and introduce justice. How can they rejoice in being humbled or brought low? They know that they are first Believers and only secondarily are they rich, and so they are thrilled that evil is destroyed and the poor people of God exalted to their true and proper estate. No wealthy person wants to lose riches, but all should want to use their riches to alleviate the suffering of the poor. Their goal is not to glory in their superiority but to use their advantages to help others.

In the previous ten verses (1:2–11) Ya’akov introduced the key motifs of his letter – the fact of trials, the need for wisdom in overcoming them, and the basic trial behind so many of the difficulties – namely, poverty. Now in the rest of the chapter, he will expand his coverage and develop them further. He begins with trials. In 1:2–4, he showed that trials were tests of trust designed by God to teach endurance; now we will see that trials are also temptations that can seriously harm us spiritually.

12 How blessed is the man who perseveres through temptation! For after he has passed the test, he will receive as his crown the Life which God has promised to those who love him.

When you face trials and temptations, if you stay close to the Lord, you will hear Him say, “Well done, good and faithful servant,” (see Matthew 25:21) and you will receive the crown of life specifically reserved for those who don’t walk away from Him in trials or temptations.

13 No one being tempted should say, “I am being tempted by God.” For God cannot be tempted by evil, and God himself tempts no one.

HaSatan tempted Job (Job 1–2) and Yeshua (Mt 4:1–11), but God tempts no one.

As mentioned in our previous post, peirasmos also means temptation, and trials become temptation when we approach them in our own strength rather than relying on God. When we accept them as God-given tests and address them through prayer and trust in God, they lead to spiritual victory and divine approval. When we encounter them in our own strength and blame God for them, we fall into temptation and sin. Every trial has two possible responses, and we must make our choice. Think of a pilgrim on a quest suddenly faced with an obstacle. They can turn to God for wisdom or to themselves in order to get around the obstacle on their own.

A primary temptation in difficult trials is to blame God for our misfortune. So the first thing we must realize is the truth that God is not tempting us. The last line of the Lord’s Prayer is best translated, “Don’t let us yield to temptation” rather than “Lead us not into temptation” (Matt 6:13). God never tempts his followers. He sends trials and tests but not temptation. Rather, the trials become temptation when we fail to seek God’s wisdom in handling them. In Yeshua’s confrontation in the wilderness (Matt 4:11), He was tested by God but tempted by Satan.

Regarding the entire arena of trials and temptations, understand this: God will allow a trial; HaSatan will come with a temptation. The trial may be financial; the temptation may be cocaine to escape the pressure. It’s not God who brings the cocaine your way. It’s not God who tempts you with pornography. No, God simply allows the trial to come. It’s HaSatan who brings the temptation.

Never, ever be mistaken on this point. The trial of our trust is to prove the faithfulness of God. It is never a temptation or an enticement to sin. Therefore, if you’re half-drunk in a bar, the guy offering you free drugs is not God’s way of saying, “I’m going to prove how faithful I am by sending this guy your way.” No! That’s a temptation you brought on yourself by placing yourself in that situation in the first place.

14 Rather, each person is being tempted whenever he is being dragged off and enticed by the bait of his own desire.

His own desire, known in Judaism as the Yetzer ra˓ (“evil inclination”). “One who commits a transgression has been seized by lust and incited thereto by the evil inclination.”

15 Then, having conceived, the desire gives birth to sin; and when sin is fully grown, it gives birth to death. 16 Don’t delude yourselves, my dear brothers. (CJB)

Sin gives birth to death, an example of Ya‛akov’s striking manner of expression. Sin always brings forth death. Every time. Sin will kill relationships. It will destroy happiness. It will ruin health. When you want to tell kids how serious sin is and what sin does, the best thing you can do is take them to the Cross of Calvary and say, “Look at this wonderful, perfect, loving Person and see Him on the Cross in agony and pain and blood. It was when Jesus became sin for us that He died, for sin always brings death.”

Don’t delude yourselves, Ya’akov says. Sin always results in death and tragedy. Sha’ul would put it this way: Don’t delude yourselves: no one makes a fool of God! A person reaps what he sows. ~ Galatians 6:7 (CJB)

We will learn a little more about Ya’akov as we dig into what he has to say about the Testing of Our Trust ~ Part 3.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Recall that the Complete Jewish Bible translates the Hebrew word for faith as trust.

Epistle of Ya’akov (James) ~ 1:2-8

Testing of Our Trust [1] (Faith) ~ Part 1

Regard it all as joy, my brothers, when you face various kinds of temptations;

The specific temptations he addresses in this letter are the poverty and oppression experienced by the poor (1:9–11; 5:1–6; cf. 2:5–6).

Newer translations render this verse: Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds. (ESV) Why? Because the Greek word for both trial and temptation is the same. You see, what God will send or allow as a trial to strengthen our faith, HaSatan will seek to exploit to get us to sin. Conversely, what HaSatan throws our way as a temptation, God allows to be a trial. HaSatan wants to use the event to tear us down and wipe us out; God wants to use the same event to show us how faithful He is and how real He can be.

Though Ya’akov’s command was direct and forceful, he did not preach to his audience. He identified with them. He addressed them warmly as my brothers. This mode of address is characteristic of the epistle. He used this familiar form no less than 15 times. Ya’akov’s direct commands are coupled with deep compassion.

It is important to note that Ya’akov did not say that a Believer should be joyous for the trials but in the trials.

Obviously, the question arises: How can a person find joy in trials?

for you know that the testing of your trust produces perseverance. But let perseverance do its complete work; so that you may be complete and whole, lacking in nothing.

Jewish tradition repeatedly stressed the virtue of enduring testings and occasionally stressed joy in them due to trust in God’s sovereignty. It’s one thing to tell your teacher that you know the material; it’s another thing to write the correct answers on a test. Similarly, you may claim to believe and follow God, but how do you respond when he tests your faith and pushes your buttons? God is working to produce perseverance in you. Don’t try to short-circuit a trial by illegitimately seeking to exit it. God is trying to make you spiritually complete and whole. The conflict you experience in the physical world is a means He uses to draw your attention to something in the spiritual world.

Trials can be faced with joy because, infused with trust, perseverance results, and if perseverance goes full-term, it will develop a thoroughly mature Believer who lacks nothing. He will indeed be all God wants him to be.

Ya’akov’s argument may seem logical, but it is still difficult to see how trials can be welcomed with an attitude of joy. Where does one turn for help to understand this paradox?

Now, if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives to all generously and without reproach, and it will be given to him.

What should you do when trouble begins? Pray. Ask God for wisdom, which is the ability to apply spiritual truth to life’s circumstances. He promises to give you the wisdom to respond to your trials with maximum spiritual benefit.

Ya’akov’s Jewish audience recognized this as the understanding and practical skill necessary to live life to God’s glory. It was not a wisdom of philosophical speculation, but the wisdom contained in the pure and peaceable absolutes of God’s will revealed in His Word and lived out. Only such divine wisdom enables Believers to be joyous and submissive in the trials of life.

But let him ask in trust, doubting nothing; for the doubter is like a wave in the sea being tossed and driven by the wind.

The image of being driven on the sea was familiar in Greek literature and occurred in Jewish wisdom texts; cf. especially Isaiah 57:20 and the saying about the insincere in Ecclesiasticus 33:2. In the context of Ya’akov, asking for wisdom in faith means committing oneself to obey what God reveals (Jas 2:14–26).

Indeed, that person should not think that he will receive anything from the Lord, because he is double-minded, unstable in all his ways. ~ Ya’akov 1:2-8 (CJB).

Jewish wisdom texts condemn the double-minded or double-tongued person (cf. also 1 Chron 12:33; Ps 12:2); like philosophers, Jewish sages despised the hypocrisy of saying one thing and living another, and speaking or living inconsistently.

How does God communicate this wisdom? Primarily through His Word and secondarily through Godly counsel. So, after you’ve prayed, go to the Scriptures and see what God says about your problem. Then ask Him for help from spiritually-minded people who can teach you how best to apply biblical truth to it. You must, however, approach with trust, doubting nothing or being double-minded (1:6, 8). You can’t go in two directions at once, responding to your problem from a divine perspective and a human one.

We will learn a little more about Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about the Testing of Our Trust ~ Part 2.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Recall that the Complete Jewish Bible translates the Hebrew word for faith as trust.

Epistle of Ya’akov (James) ~ 1:1

Greetings

From: Ya’akov, a slave of God and of the Lord Yeshua the Messiah.

Ya’akov was not only the half-brother of Yeshua and by now a slave of God and of the Lord Yeshua the Messiah and the leader of the Kehillah in Yerushalayim. We learn in Acts 15:13 ff. that he was also instrumental in sending a letter to the Goyim throughout Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia, instructing them to abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from fornication. If you keep yourselves from these, you will be doing the right thing.

To: The Twelve Tribes in the Diaspora:

Shalom!

Now in his epistle, he turns his attention to Messianic Jewish Believers. The Twelve Tribes refers to Jews and is not merely a metaphor for Christians, as some Christian commentators maintain. This is clear from the style of the letter generally, particularly from the fact that they had synagogues, as we will see in chapter 2. Not that Gentile Believers were excluded from reading it, but that the leader of the Messianic Jewish community in Yerushalayim is addressing fellow Jewish Believers in the Diaspora, outside Israel.

The Diaspora became a technical term referring to Jews living outside the land of Israel. Besides the expulsions from the land by the Assyrians (2Ki 17; 1Ch 5) and Babylonians (2Ki 24, 25; 2Ch 36), many Jews were taken to Rome as slaves when the Romans conquered them around 63 BCE.

Shalom!

Yeshua instructs us: 12 When you enter someone’s household, say, ‘Shalom aleikhem!’ 13 If the home deserves it, let your shalom rest on it; if not, let your shalom return to you ~ Matthew 10:12-13 (CJB). The word shalom means not only peace but also tranquility, safety, well-being, welfare, health, contentment, success, comfort, wholeness, and integrity. Shalom aleikhem means “Peace be upon you” and is a standard greeting, as is Shalom!” Therefore, there is a deeper meaning to Yeshua’s instruction in v. 13 on when to give or withhold shalom, for He refers not only to the greeting but to the whole complex of peace/wholeness/well-being that the Messiah offers through His talmidim and similarly at many places in the Brit Hadashah. [1]

We will learn a little more about Ya’akov as we dig into what he says about the Testing of Our Faith.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Stern, D. H. (1996). Jewish New Testament Commentary.