Y’hudah (Jude) ~ Call to Persevere and Blessing

In my last post, we explored the Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 2. We conclude our study of Y’hudah by experiencing his Call to Persevere and His Blessing.

19 These are the people who cause divisions. They are controlled by their impulses because they don’t have the Spirit.

The people who cause divisions again refers to the false prophets and teachers who are dividing the community, seeking the values of society rather than God.

Y’hudah denounces the actions of the scoffers as devoid of God; they don’t have the Spirit. This seems to compare to the false teachers’ claims that they rely on visions, which they argued were from God (v. 8).

20 But you, dear friends, build yourselves up in your most holy faith and pray in union with the Ruach HaKodesh. 21 Thus, keep yourselves in God’s love as you wait for our Lord Yeshua the Messiah to give you the mercy that leads to eternal life.

Y’hudah contrasts you, dear friends, genuine Believers, with the ungodly free thinkers of vv. 4–19 and prescribes four things to do: keep the faith, pray in concert with the Ruach HaKodesh, keep yourselves immersed in God’s love, and wait for Yeshua to bless you with mercy.

22 Rebuke some who are disputing; 23 save others, snatching them out of the fire; and to yet others, show mercy, but with fear, hating even the clothes stained by their vices.

There are three kinds of people who have left the most holy faith (v. 20):

  1. Those who are disputing have closed themselves off to the truth. One can neither teach nor save them, only rebuke them, praying that God will change them.
  2. Others, who have been swept along by the free thinkers, are relatively innocent but in grave danger of falling away. Save them first by snatching them out of the fire, then ground them in the principles of truth.
  3. Yet others have fallen into sin but have not lost their basic teachability so that they may be restored. To them, show mercy, but with fear, hating even the clothes stained by their vices – love the sinner, but hate the sin. Brothers, suppose someone is caught doing something wrong. You who have the Spirit should set him right, but in a spirit of humility, keeping an eye on yourselves so that you won’t be tempted too. ~ Galatians 6:1 (CJB).

Not only must we grow in a relationship with the Lord, but we must also consider our relationships with the rest of God’s family. We must have mercy on those who waver. Some Believers struggle in their faith and need compassion. Others need to be aggressively snatched from the fire, that is, redirected from behavior or relationship that will burn them. But helping the latter, be wise: hate even the garment defiled by the flesh. As sure as clothing contaminated by a leper’s skin could infect you, helping others overcome their sinful tendencies could drag you down with them. Reject the sin; help the sinner.

24 Now, to the One who can keep you from falling and set you without defect and full of joy in the presence of His Sh’khinah (glory)2to God alone, our Deliverer, through Yeshua the Messiah, our Lord – be glory, majesty, power, and authority before all time, now and forever. Amen. ~ Jude 19-25 (CJB).

In addressing God as the One who can keep you from falling, the closing prayer follows the theme of vv. 22–23. This passage is one of the greatest of the Brit Hadashah doxologies, comparable with Romans 11:33–36, 16:25–27; Rev. 4:10–11, 5:12–13, 15:3–4.

God keeps you from being fooled by the deceptions of false teachers. He can also keep you from being tripped up so that you stand before Him without blemish and with great joy. No one is sinless. To be blameless means that whatever your failures, they are sufficiently covered. When you stand before God, based on your commitment to the truth, He is going to declare that you look exactly right.

Y’hudah closes by saying that to Yeshua belongs all glory, majesty, power, and authority. It is a reminder that God has the attributes, the position, and the legitimate right to get you through whatever challenges confront and the moral decay in the world around you. [1]

In my next post, we will begin to explore the Creeds of the Kehillah.

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[1] The Tony Evans Bible Commentary.

Y’hudah (Jude) ~ Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 2

In my last post, we began to explore the Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 1. This post will continue to explore the Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 2.

Scripture instructs us to obey the legitimate authorities appointed over us. But false teachers reject authority. In this case, they were accountable to no one but themselves.

Likewise, these people, with their visions, defile their own flesh, despise godly authority, and insult angelic beings. When Mikha’el, one of the ruling angels, took issue with the Adversary, arguing over the body of Moshe, he did not dare bring against him an insulting charge but said, “May Adonai rebuke you.”

Mikha’el is one of two archangels mentioned in the Bible (the other is Gabriel; see Dan 8:16; 9:21; Luke 1:19; Rev 12:7). Others, such as Raphael and Phanuel, are mentioned in early Jewish texts (see 1 Enoch 40:9; 71:8–9). Daniel 12:1 portrays Mikha’el as a special guardian to Israel.

These people refer to the false teachers we encounter in my last post. Although modern Jewish popular ideology holds that angels are a Christian invention reflecting a departure from pure monotheism, the Tanakh speaks of them often, and post-Tanakh Judaism developed an intricate angelology that helps explain this verse. Moreover, the tantalizing brevity of the Tanakh’s account of Moshe’s death and the fact that he was buried in the valley across from Beit-P’or in the land of Mo’av, but to this day, no one knows where his grave is. ~ Deuteronomy 34:6).

Here Y’hudah reportedly alludes to a story included in the Testament of Moshe, a Jewish writing from the beginning of the first century CE. However, some portions of it have survived; the relevant ones have not. However, elements of the legend are found elsewhere. Mikha’el, who, based on Daniel 10:13, 21; 12:1, is regarded in Jewish tradition as Israel’s defender and HaSatan’s opponent.

Instead, in keeping with the warning, Adonai says, ‘Vengeance is my responsibility; I will repay’ (Rom. 12:19); Mikha’el said only, May Adonai rebuke you, echoing God’s rebuke of HaSatan (Zechariah 3:1–2).

10 However, these people insult anything they don’t understand; and what they do understand naturally, without thinking, like animals – by these things they are destroyed! 11 Woe to them, in that they have walked the road of Kayin (Cain), they have given themselves over for money to the error of Bil’am, they have been destroyed in the rebellion of Korach.

The road of Kayin took him out from the presence of Adonai (Genesis 4:16) because he refused to accept God’s advice and did not take advantage of any of the five or six opportunities God gave him to repent (Genesis 4:1–16). Kayin’s road led him to murder his brother Hevel, but murder was not the road itself.

They have given themselves over for money to the error of Bil‛am (Balaam). Numbers 16 reports the rebellion of Korach (Korah) against God’s appointed leader Moshe as a significant threat to the community of Isra’el, eliminated only when God had the earth swallow up Korach and his 250 co-conspirators. Because the false prophets and teachers similarly wish to take on themselves the authority in the Body of the Messiah which God has given to others, Y’hudah says they have been destroyed.

12 These men are filthy spots at your festive gatherings meant to foster love; they share your meals without a qualm while caring only for themselves. They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; trees without fruit even in autumn, and doubly dead because they have been uprooted; 13 savage sea-waves heaving forth their shameful deeds like foam; wandering stars for whom the blackest darkness has been reserved forever.

In Jewish culture, meals have always been festive gatherings meant to foster love; among Believers in Yeshua, this is seen in Acts 2:42 and 1 Cor 11:21.

Waterless clouds carried along by the winds may be an allusion to Proverbs 25:14, Like clouds and wind that bring no rain, he who boasts of gifts he never gives.

14 Moreover, Hanokh (Enoch), in the seventh generation starting with Adam, also prophesied about these men, saying, “Look! Adonai came with his myriads of holy ones 15 to execute judgment against everyone, that is, to convict all the godless for their godless deeds which they have done in such a godless way, and for all the harsh words these godless sinners have spoken against him.”

Y’hudah quotes 1 Enoch 1:9. 1 Enoch, a compilation of writings by several authors who lived in the last two centuries BCE., is one of the Pseudepigrapha, Jewish books attributed to famous biblical figures, such as Hanokh (Genesis 5:18–24), in the seventh generation starting with Adam (Genesis 5:1). Such attribution was not deceptive but either honorific or a means of identifying the message of the actual author with the character and activity of the supposed one; compare the writer of a historical novel or documentary who puts words in the mouth of George Washington. Y’hudah’s quoting a non-canonical book does not make 1 Enoch inspired Scripture, nor does it disqualify Y’hudah’s letter. Sha’ul quoted pagan authors at Acts 17:28–29 and Titus 1:12, and no one supposes that their works should be included in Holy Writ or Sha’ul’s excluded. [1]

16 These people are grumblers and complainers; they follow their evil passions, their mouths speak grandiosities, and they flatter others to gain an advantage. 17 But you, dear friends, keep in mind the words spoken in advance by the emissaries of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. 18 They told you, “During the acharit-hayamim (end times), there will be scoffers following their own godless passions.” ~ Jude 1:8-18 (CJB)

The majority of scholars hold that Second Kefa is an expansion of Y’hudah’s letter. Still, these verses suggest that Y’hudah drew on Second Kefa since Y’hudah not only excludes himself from the emissaries of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah but in reciting what they told you, he seems to be quoting 2 Kefa 3:3. A third possibility is that both books partly depend on a common source.

In my next post, we will conclude our exploration of Y’hudah by looking at his Call to Persevere and His Blessing.

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[1] Jewish New Testament Commentary.

Y’hudah (Jude) ~ Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 1

In my last post, we began to explore this writing of Y’hudah (Jude). We looked at who he was when he wrote the letter, why he wrote the letter, and the conical history of its inclusion in the Bible. This post will continue to explore the letter in more detail beginning with Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 1.

Y’hudah notes that while he intended to write about salvation, he felt compelled to address the danger confronting his audience – false teachers.

Dear friends, I was busily at work writing to you about the salvation we share when I found it necessary to write, urging you to keep contending earnestly for the faith which was once and for all passed on to God’s people. For certain individuals, the ones written about long ago as being meant for this condemnation, have wormed their way in – ungodly people who pervert God’s grace into a license for debauchery and disown our only Master and Lord, Yeshua the Messiah.

I was busily at work writing to you about the salvation we share. According to David Stern: “as with many books mentioned in the Tanakh that have not survived, our curiosity about Y’hudah’s soteriological [1] treatise cannot be satisfied. This salvation consists of freedom of enslavement, the gift of the Ruach HaKodesh, and the ability to live a pure life – all of which are offered freely because of Yeshua’s death and resurrection. Y’hudah is referring to the salvation that both he and his audience have experienced.

Keep contending earnestly for the faith which was once and for all passed on to God’s people. This suggests that the letter was written in the latter part of the first century when the faith had begun to crystallize. What the ungodly people do is not merely pass on erroneous information but pervert God’s grace into a license for debauchery and disown our only Master and Lord. They no longer recognize Yeshua’s right to command obedience but teach a perversion of Romans 3:28 and Ephesians 2:8–9 instead. A person is considered righteous by God on the ground of professing faith in Yeshua regardless of what sort of works he or she does. Such an attitude quickly results in debauchery and other kinds of antinomianism [2] since it removes the ethical and moral component of faith – faithfulness – trusting.

Written about long ago will be addressed when we look at vv. 14–15in a later post.

God’s condemnation for sin has already been decided. Since the false teachers mentioned here are intentionally and unrepentantly leading others astray, Y’hudah is sure of their fate.

In the following passage, Y’hudah recalls three examples from the Tanakh. Each of these examples highlights a particular aspect of the false teachers’ errors: They practiced the sin of unbelief (v. 5), sought authority they did not deserve (v. 6), and they engaged in immoral behavior (v. 7).

Since you already know all this, my purpose is only to remind you that Adonai, who once delivered the people from Egypt, later destroyed those who did not trust. And the angels that did not keep within their original authority but abandoned their proper sphere, he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for the Judgment of the Great Day. And S’dom, ‘Amora and the surrounding cities, following a pattern like theirs, committing sexual sins and perversions, lie exposed as a warning of the everlasting fire awaiting those who must undergo punishment. ~ Jude 1: 3-7 (CJB). [3]

Since you already know all this implies that Y’hudah’s audience is fully informed about the message of Yeshua and the events derived primarily from the Tanakh. All Jewish readers and even most recent Gentile converts knew the Exodus story. That people had experienced God’s redemption did not guarantee that they could not fall away and be destroyed.

In Genesis 6:1-3, the angels that did not keep within their original authority left their assigned place to have intercourse with women.

The transition to S’dom and Amora points to the similarity of the sin of homosexuality and what these angels did in Genesis 6. The destruction of these cities at the SE corner of the Dead Sea is used over 20 times in Scripture as an illustration of God’s judgment during the days of Avraham and Lot (cf. Ge 18:22–19:29).

In my next post, we will pick up our exploration of Judgment of False Teachers ~ Part 2.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Soteriology is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.

[2] The doctrine according to which Believers are freed by grace from the necessity of obeying the Mosaic Law.

[3] Even though Jude has only one chapter, it is customary to use the “1” nomenclature in front of the verse(s).

Y’hudah (Jude)

An Introduction

As I stated in my last post, I was not sure which way the Lord was leading me. We finished our journey through the Brit Hadashah on the life and letters of Kefa (Peter). Kefa referred to Y’hudah several times in his second letter to the saints. So, it seems fairly logical to me to explore this writing of Y’hudah (Jude).

Y’hudah is classified as a “general” letter to the saints. As we will see, there is no specific audience geographically to which the letter is written as is the case with Sha’ul’s letters.

From: Y’hudah, a slave of Yeshua the Messiah and a brother of Ya’akov: To: Those who have been called, who are loved by God the Father and kept for Yeshua the Messiah: May mercy, love and shalom be yours in full measure. ~ Y’hudah 1-2

Who Was Y’hudah?

The author’s name is Y’hudah in Hebrew, Judas in Greek, and Jude in English. In Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3, he is mentioned as one of four half-brothers of Yeshua.

Who was this Y’hudah? Three possibilities exist. The author may be either:

Y’hudah, a half-brother of Yeshua and the brother of Ya’akov, or

Y’hudah, the Emissary, or

Y’hudah, a leader in the early church of Yerushalayim.

This latter Y’hudah was sent to Antioch with Sha’ul, Bar-naba, Y’hudah, called Bar-Sabba, and Silas (Acts 15:22). Bar-Sabba could have been a brother of Yosef Bar-Sabba, who was one of two “nominees” to replace Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:23). Thus, he would have been known in the church. But little other evidence points to this individual as the author of this epistle.

As to whether he was the Emissary Yehuda, verse 17 in his letter seems to indicate that he did not consider himself to be an emissary, though modesty could have led him to write as he did. However, the important subject that he wrote about would probably have called for his identifying himself with the other emissaries, for authority’s sake, if he really was an emissary.

The most probable identification is that the author Y’hudah was a half-brother of Yeshua, a son of Yosef and Miryam after Yeshua[1]

Date of Writing

Since Y’hudah addresses a situation similar to that addressed by Second Kefa and exhibits a literary relationship (probably as a source) to Second Kefa, the two letters are commonly dated in fairly close proximity. Therefore, while external evidence is sparse, Y’hudah is best dated in the mid-60s CE.  [2]

Why Did He Write This Letter?

He was eager to write to the recipients about their salvation but changed his mind and instead wrote them to contend for the faith that was delivered to the saints. Y’hudah, then, was open to the Ruach’s adjustment of his plans so he could address something urgent that came up. He wants believers to energetically keep contending earnestly for the faith, that is, for the body of scripturally based doctrine that is to be the authoritative guide for our belief and practice. Believers are to wage battle on behalf of the true faith as deposited in God’s inerrant Word (see 2 Tim 3:14-17).

Y’hudah wrote with a heart of love and understanding, but with a note of concern and authority. He wanted to write on a joyful theme, about the salvation we share (v. 3), but was compelled to write a much more somber epistle. Like Kefa his love for Believers whom he saw endangered by encroaching adversaries moved him to turn from the more pleasant theme to sound a solemn warning about the false doctrine and teachers creeping into the community.

Canonical History

Y’hudah’s heavy use of apocryphal writings retarded its canonical status in some quarters, but its relation to Second Kefa indicates the high prestige it enjoyed elsewhere. In the 4th cent. Y’hudah overcame most of its opposition and was listed without qualification in Athanasius’s festal letter, 367 CE.  [3]

In my next post, we will pick up our exploration of Y’hudah’s letter beginning in verse 3.

Click here for the PDF version.

[1] Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures.

[2] The ESV Study Bible.

[3] The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised.